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Five Great Reasons Why We Care:
The Pulp and Paper Industry's Virtual Elimination Strategy

REFERENCES

  1. A Strategy for Virtual Elimination of Persistent Toxic Substances. Report of the Virtual Elimination Task Force to the International Joint Commission. August 1993.

  2. Pollution Prevention Act of 1990. 42 USC 18101. Laws of 101st Cong. - 2nd Sess.

  3. Priority Substances List Assessment Report No.1: Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans. Canadian Environmental Protection Act. Environment Canada and Health and Welfare Canada. 1990.

  4. Canada Gazette Part II. Vol. 126. No. 11.

  5. Toxic Substances Management Policy. Government of Canada, Environment Canada. June 1995.

  6. Seventh Biennial Report on Great Lakes Water Quality. International Joint Commission. 1994.

  7. 1985 Report on Great Lakes Water Quality. Great Lakes Water Quality Board Report to the International Joint Commission. June 1985.

  8. US EPA/Paper Industry Cooperative Dioxin Study: The 104 Mill Study. NCASI Technical Bulletin No. 590. May, 1990.

  9. CPPA National Mill Dioxin Characterization Survey. Canadian Pulp and Paper Association. 1990.

  10. Berry, R.M., Fleming, B.I., Voss, R.H., Luthe, C.E. and Wrist, P.E. Toward Preventing the Formation of Dioxins during Chemical Pulp Bleaching. Pulp & Paper Canada, 90:8. 1989.

  11. Federal Register Vol. 58 (241) pp. 66078-66216.

  12. Mackay, D. A Perspective on the Sources and Fate of Organochlorines. Paper presented at the Organochlorine Consortium meeting, Toronto, Ontario. June 1994.

  13. NCASI data submission to Centre for the Biology of Natural Systems. April 1995.

  14. Cohen, M., Commoner, B., Eisl, H., Bartlett, P., Dickar, A., Hill, C., Quigley, J., and Rosenthal, J. Quantitative Estimation of the Entry of Dioxins, Furans, Hexachlorobenzene into the Great Lakes from Airborne and Waterborne Sources. Centre for the Biology of Natural Systems. May 1995.

  15. Regulation Made Under the Environmental Protection Act: Effluent Monitoring and Effluent Limits - Pulp and Paper Sector. Province of Ontario. November 25, 1993.

  16. A Strategy for Virtual Elimination of Persistent Toxic Substances. Report of the Virtual Elimination Task Force to the International Joint Commission. August 1993. Appendix B.

  17. Luthe, C.E. and Wrist, P.E. Progress in Reducing Dioxins and Organochlorines: 1988-1993. Miscellanous Report MR 278. Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada. March 1994.

  18. Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada. Mid 1994 Survey. December 1994.

  19. Progress in Reducing the TCDD/TCDF Content of Effluents, Pulps, and Wastewater Treatment Sludges from the Manufacturing of Bleached Chemical Pulp. NCASI Special Report No. 94-08. August 1994.

  20. O'Conner, B.I., Kovacs, T.G., Voss, R.H., Martel, P.H. and van Lierop, B. A Laboratory Assessment of the Environmental Quality of Alternative Pulp Bleaching Effluents. Pulp and Paper Canada, 95(3). March 1994

  21. Solomon, K., Bergman, H., Huggett, R., Mackay, D., and McKague, B. A Review and Assessment of the Ecological Risks Associated with the Use of Chlorine Dioxide for the Bleaching of Pulp. In press. Pulp & Paper Canada.

  22. Gergov, M., Priha, M., Talka, E., VŠlttilŠ, O., Kangas, A. and Kukkonen, K. Chlorinated Organic Compounds in Effluent Treatment at Kraft Mills. Tappi Journal, 72(10):175-184. 1988.

  23. Potlatch Corporation, Northwest Paper Division, Cloquet, Minnesota.

  24. Michigan Department of Health. News Release. State Releases 1994 Fish Consumption Advisory. March 16, 1994.

  25. Mead Corporation, Escanaba, Michigan.

  26. Pryke, D.C., Bourre, G., Swanson, S., Owens, W. and Kloepper-Sams, P. Environmental Improvements at Grande Prairie and Ecosystem Response. Pulp & Paper Canada. In press.

  27. Alliance for Environmental Technology. Eco-System Recovery: Liftings of Fish Advisories for Dioxin Downstream of US Pulp Mills. August 1995.

  28. US EPA. Regulatory Impact of Proposed Effluent Guidelines and NESHAP for the Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Industry. November 1993.

  29. Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Health. News Release. Consumption Advisory, - Mountain Whitefish from the Columbia River. March 7, 1995.

  30. Priority Substances List Assessment Report No. 2: Effluents from Pulp Mills Using Bleaching. Canadian Environmental Protection Act. Environment Canada. 1991.

  31. Alliance for Environmental Technology. Trends in World Bleached Chemical Pulp Production: 1990-1995. April 1995.

  32. Fleming, B. and Sloan, T. Low Kappa Cooking, TCF Bleaching Affect Pulp Yield, Fiber Strength. Pulp & Paper. December 1994.

  33. Gullichsen, J. The Changing Kraft Pulping Process. Proceedings, International Chemical Recovery Conference. Toronto, Ontario. April 1995.

  34. Ek, P., Axegård, P., Bergnor, E. and Ekholm, U. The Role of Metals in Bleaching TCF- Bleaching of Softwood Kraft Pulps. Proceedings, Tappi Pulping Conference. November 1994.

  35. Rennel, J. TCF-An Example of the Growing Importance of Environmental Perceptions in the Choice of Fibres. Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal. No. 1. 1995.

  36. Moldenius, S. Pulp Quality and Economics of ECF vs. TCF. Presentation to the 1995 International Non-Chlorine Bleaching Conference. March 1995.

  37. Steffes, F. and Reeves, R. High Consistency Ozone Delignification - Mill Experience. Presentation to the 1994 International Non-Chlorine Bleaching Conference. March 1994.

  38. Maples, G., Ambady, R., Caron, R., Stratton, S. and Vega Canovas, R. BFR(TM): A New Process Toward Bleach Plant Effluent Closure. Tappi. Vol. 77, No. 11. November 1994.


Appendix

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This report was prepared by the Alliance for Environmental Technology
for submission at the International Joint Commission's 8th Biennial Meeting
Duluth, MN
September 1995